Mon to Thur 8:30am – 5pm

Hope Island, QLD, Australia

Statins cause diabetes

A recent study by Waters DD, Ho JE, Boekholdt SM, et al published in the J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:148-152 discusses the increased risk of people taking Statin medication (cholesterol-lowering drugs) developing Diabetes.  Considering that  research dating back as far as the 1980’s identifies inflammation and not cholesterol as the danger associated with increased cardiavascular disease, we must surely question why Statins are still being so widely prescribed.  The best measure for blood vessel inflammation and risk for plaque build up is homocysteine.  Next time you have a blood test done, insist this be included.  If your GP does not know about it, suggest he/she reads the following published research:

References

1. Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA. 1995; 274:1049-57.

2. Swift ME, Schultz TD. Relationship of vitamins B6 and B12 to homocysteine levels: risk for coronary heart disease. Nutr Rep Int. 1986; 34:1-14.

3. Selhub J, Miller JW. The pathogenesis of homocyst(e)inemia: interruption of the coordinate regulation by S-adenosylmethionine of the remethylation and transsulfuration of homocysteine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 55:131-38.

4. Miller JW, Nadeau MR, Smith D, Selhub J. Vitamin B6 deficiency vs folate deficiency: comparison of responses to methionine loading in rats. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59:1033-39.

5. Miller JW, Ribaya-Mercado JD, Russell RM, Shepard DC, Morrow FD, et al. Total homocysteine in fasting plasma is not a good indicator of B6 deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992; 55:1154-60.

6. Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA. 1995; 274:1049-57.

7. Refsum H, Ueland PM, Nygard O, Vollset SE. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. Annu Rev Med. 1998; 49:31-62.

8. Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SE. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 1997; 337:230-36.

9. Stampfer MJ, Malinow MR, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. JAMA. 1992;268:877-81.

10. Meleady R, Graham I. Plasma homocysteine as a cardiovascular risk factor: causal, consequential or of no consequence? Nutr Rev. 1999; 57(10):299-305.

11. Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SM. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 1997; 337:230-36.

12. Kark JD, Selhub J, Adler B, Gofin J, Abramson JH, Friedman G, Rosenberg IH. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine level and mortality in middle-aged and elderly men and women in Jerusalem. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 131(5): 321-30.

13. Graham IM, Daly LE, Refsum HM, Robinson K, Brattstrom LE, Ueland PM, Palma-Reis RJ, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. The European Concerted Action Project. JAMA. 1997; 277(22):1775-81.

14. Graham IM, Daly LE, Refsum HM, Robinson K, Brattstrom LE, Ueland PM, Palma-Reis RJ, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. The European Concerted Action Project. JAMA. 1997; 277(22):1775-81.

15. Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJH, van der Merwe A, Becker PJ, Delport R, Potgieter HC. Vitamin requirements for the treatment of hyperhomocystinemia in humans. J Nutr. 1994; 124:1927-33.

16. Chait A, Malinow MR, Nevin DN, Morris CD, Eastgard RL, Kris-Etherton P, Pi-Sunyer FX, Oparil S, Resnick LM, et al. Increased dietary micronutrients decrease serum homocysteine concentrations in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70(5):881-7.

17 Selhub J. Homocysteine metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999; 19:217-46.

18. Betaine for Homocystinuria. The Medical Letter. 1997; 39(993):12.

19. Boers GHJ. Hyperhomocystinemia: A Newly Recognized Risk Factor For Vascular Disease. Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 1994; 45:34-41.

20. Chait A, Malinow MR, Nevin DN, Morris CD, Eastgard RL, Kris-Etherton P, Pi-Sunyer FX, Oparil S, Resnick LM, et al. Increased dietary micronutrients decrease serum homocysteine concentrations in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70(5):881-7.

21. Selhub J. Homocysteine metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999; 19:217-46.

22. Hernanz A, Plaza A, Martin-Mola E, De Miguel E. Increased plasma levels of homocysteine and other thiol compounds in rheumatoid arthritis women. Clin Biochem. 1999; 32(1):65-70.

23. Haagsma CJ, Blom HJ, van Riel PL, vant Hof MA, Giesendorf BA, et al. Influence of sulphasalazine, methotrexate, and the combination of both on plasma homocysteine concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1999; 58(2):79- 84.

24. Morgan SL, Baggott JE, Lee JY, Alarcon GS. Folic acid supplementation prevents deficient blood folate levels and hyperhomocystinemia during long term, low dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: implications for cardiovascular disease prevention. J Rheumatol. 1998; 25(3):441-6.

25. Regland B, Andersson M, Abrahamsson L, Bagby J, Dyrehag LE, Gottfries CG. Increased concentrations of homocysteine in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol. 1997; 26(4):301-7.

26. Parsons RB, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Williams AC. In vitro effect of the cysteine metabolites homocysteic acid, homocysteine and cysteic acid upon human neuronal

Kolhouse JF. Are neuropsychiatric manifestations of folate, cobalamin and pyridoxine deficiency mediated through imbalances in excitatory sulfur amino acids? Med Hypotheses. 1994; 43(4):239-44.

28. Nilsson K, Gustafson L, Faldt R, Andersson A, Brattstrom L, Lindgren A, Israelsson B, Hultberg B. Hyperhomocysteinaemia-a common finding in a psychogeriatric population. Eur J Clin Invest. 1996; 26(10):853-9.

29. Muller T, Werne B, Fowler B, Kuhn W. Nigral endothelial dysfunction, homocysteine, and Parksinson’s disease. Lancet. 1999; 354(9173):126- 7.

30. Steegers-Theunissen RP, Steegers EA, Thomas CM, Hollanders HM, et al. Study on the presence of homocysteine in ovarian follicular fluid. Fertil Steril. 1993; 60(6):1006-10.

31. Sorensen TK, Malinow MR, Williams MA, King IB, Luthy DA. Elevated second-trimester serum homocyst(e) ine levels and subsequent risk of preeclampsia. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1999; 48(2):98- 103.

32. Catargi B, Parrot-Roulaud F, Cochet C, Ducassou D, Roger P, Tabarin A. Homocysteine, hypothyroidism, and effect of thyroid hormone replacement. Thyroid. 1999; 9(12):1163-6.

33. Kark JD, Selhub J, Adler B, Gofin J, Abramson JH, Friedman G, Rosenberg IH. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine level and mortality in middle-aged and elderly men and women in Jerusalem. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 131(5): 321-30.